• Dynamically linking of resources
  • Ensembling
  • For execution of large scale, resource intensive, distributive applications

Earlier in 1980-1990s

Parallel computers were focusing on communication between processors, and as a result development took place in the ares Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM), Message Passing Interface(MPI), High Performance Fortran (HPF), OpenMP etc.

GRID can be thought as a tool extending parallel computer paradigms from a cluster to a distributed environment which is loosely coupled.

Grid links resources like

  • Storage
  • Computation
  • Visualization
  • Instruments

1990’s- Global Grid Forum (GGF)

Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA), is an initiative taken by GGF for defining core services for areas:

  • System Management and automation
  • Workload/Performance
  • Security
  • Availability/Service Management
  • Logical Resource management
  • Clustering Service
  • Connecting Issues
  • Physical Storage Management


 Wireless  PDA’s


 Grid Application     Sharing Policies  Global Area Networks
 Middleware tools and services software packages, authentication, file transfer, portals management 
Common Infrastructure National Security Force (NSF Middleware Initiative) NMI, GGF standards, OGSA
 Resources (Storage, Computation, Instruments)

Building Blocks of GRID :

Network :

Higher Bandwidth (Big Pipes) – Maximal communication, intensive distributive nature

Lower Bandwidth (small Pipes) – High Latency, Low/minimal communication.

Nodes :  High performance parallel computers or clusters.

Common Infrastructure : Standards



1)     Life science- Bio Informatics, genomics, Neuroscience

2)     Engineering: NASA, IPG

3)     Data Oriented: GEODISE aircraft engineering design GRID, DAME grid to manage data from aircraft engine sensors

4)     Physical science : Particle physics data GRID, INFN(Italian National Institute for Research in Nuclear and sub-nuclear Physics)

5)     Astronomical Data Grid



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